This paper presents compelling evidence that the central fact of the Pentagon attack on September 11, 2001, is the same as at the World Trade Center: inside-the-building explosives which no foreign terrorists could have had the access to plant, making the official narrative of what happened on 9/11 impossible. Physical evidence and eyewitness testimony converge to show that internal as well as external explosions went off just after 9:30 a.m., when the official narrative claims Flight 77 was still dozens of miles from Washington. The official narrative claims AA77 didn't approach the building until 9:37:46, or almost 9:38. These primary explosions, also, went off at locations far removed from the official story "plane penetration path" in Wedge One, including in Wedge Two significantly further north and in the two innermost rings far beyond the alleged "exit" hole in the middle or C Ring.
The FBI knows that explosives are central to the real 9/11 plot
The FBI's code names for terrorist investigations known to have been carried out by means of bombs or explosives end in BOM[B] -- for example, the acronym for its Oklahoma City bombing investigation is OKBOM.1 It is therefore highly significant that the official FBI code name for the investigation of the September 11 attacks is PENTTBOM, which stands for Pentagon Twin Towers Bombing. In this acronym, the abbreviation for Pentagon comes first, followed by that for the Twin Towers, with the notable absence of an abbreviation for Pennsylvannia. Robert Mueller, who was FBI director on 9/11, confirmed this to Time magazine: "The [FBI's] SIOC [Strategic Intelligence Operations Center] filled to capacity on 9/11 and remained that way through PENTTBOM, the FBI's cryptonym for 'Pentagon,' 'Twin Towers' and 'Bombing'], reconfirming Newsweek's report in the immediate wake of the attacks.2 Despite the clear inference that the 9/11 investigation, the largest in the agency's history,3 was focused on bombs or explosives, FBI briefers lied to the "Jersey Girls," whose husbands were killed in the Twin Towers, when they asked why the investigation was called PENTTBOM. They were told that it was because "all the FBI's investigations [code names] end in BOM."4 This is provably false; even the acronym for the agency's investigation of the 9/11-related anthrax letter attacks is AMERITRAX, not AMERIBOM. Further evidence that the FBI knew the core of the 9/11 attacks was bombs or explosives is that the acronyms for its investigations of prior major terrorist attacks known to have been carried out by bombs did end in BOM(B) -- for instance, OKBOMB for the Oklahoma City bombing.4a The truth is, the highest levels of the U.S. government know why the investigation of the Sept. 11 attacks was called PENTTBOM[B], have from the very beginning, and made a conscious decision to keep the American people, including more than 6,000 victims' family members, not only in the dark but actively deceived about what really happened to cause the mass murder of nearly 3,000 of our fellow citizens.
The Pentagon expected an attack on 9/11
Top Defense Department officials, including Secretary Donald Rumsfeld himself, not only expected but were preparing for some kind of attack on the Pentagon on 9/11. Shortly after the attacks, Newsweek reported that on Sept. 10, the day before, "a group of top Pentagon officials suddenly canceled travel plans for the next morning, apparently because of security concerns,"4b and on Sept. 11 Associated Press reported that "the Pentagon attack came [only] minutes after Rumsfeld predicted [having already learned of the attacks on the two World Trade Center towers], 'There will be another event.'"5 The source for Rumsfeld's "prediction" was Rep. Christopher Cox, who had been meeting with him in his office before the Pentagon attack. In another version, Cox reported that the Secretary had said, "Believe me, this isn't over yet. There's going to be another attack, and it could be us [the Pentagon]."4c Even earlier, before the first attack in New York City, at a breakfast Rumsfeld had called with his senior-most military officers and top civilian Pentagon officials including Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz and the military service chiefs, he "predicted" that a shocking world event would occur in the near future;4d then just as the breakfast was breaking up, the first WTC tower was hit.
The Pentagon expected an attack with explosives on 9/11
High-level officials ordered a search for explosives at the Pentagon Metro stop, where many employees arrive to enter the building, just over two hours before the attack on 9/11. Army auditor Michael Nielsen and two colleagues on temporary duty assignment from Fort Monmouth, as well as Army document specialist April Gallop, saw bomb-sniffing Defense Protective Service dog teams and their handlers in the Pentagon Metro stop adjacent to the building at approximately 7:30 a.m.15 According to the Washington Post's online coverage on Sept. 11, the Pentagon Metro stop was shut down that morning "after the explosion" and was the only D.C. area station to close on 9/11. Nielsen said that he didn't see any dog teams in the Metro stop before or after 9/11, just on that morning. As dogs search for bombs and not planes, some kind of attack with explosives was apparently anticipated. Indeed, shortly after the explosion in his building, Secretary Rumsfeld told Sam Donaldson of ABC News that his first thought was that a bomb had gone off, and when Donaldson asked, "What did you think it was?" Rumsfeld replied, "A bomb?"
Reports of primary Pentagon explosions throughout the chain of command
As detailed by Professor Graeme MacQueen at the Toronto 9/11 Hearings, more than 100 firefighters, first responders and other eye- and earwitnesses heard and felt explosions inside the WTC Towers in New York City, including at least two dozen reporting massive basement-level explosions in WTC 1 before the first plane hit more than ninety floors above. Similarly, Pentagon eye- and earwitnesses gave testimonies to official Defense Department historians and the mainstream media that they experienced massive explosions at the Pentagon, some more than five minutes before Flight 77 is held by the government's narrative to have come anywhere near the building.
The 9/11 Commission staff report on its interview with Navy Capt. Charles Joseph "Joe" Leidig, acting deputy director of operations for the Pentagon's National Military Command Center on 9/11, notes, "He [Leidig] had no awareness of AA 77 coming back to Washington. His first awareness was a call from the SECDEF's [Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld's] three-star aide who asked if he felt the explosion in the building, and asked Leidig to investigate whether it might be a terrorist attack [emphasis added]."6
Many other military officers and enlisted personnel inside the building also experienced and reported explosions. Lt. Nancy McKeown, who was in the Naval Command Center on the first floor of the second-in D Ring, said, "It sounded like a series of explosions going off... It sounded like a series of bombs exploding, similar to firecrackers when you light them and you just get a series going off." This is essentially identical to firefighters' descriptions of preplaced explosives going off in the World Trade Center towers in New York City on 9/11. McKeown yelled "Bomb!" when she heard and felt a major explosion, after which tiles fell from her office ceiling.7 Lt. Col. Thurman, who was on the second floor of this same second-in D Ring said, "To me, it didn't seem like a plane. To me, it seemed like it was a bomb. Being in the military, I have been around grenade, artillery explosions. It was a two-part explosion to me. It seemed like there was a percussion blast that blew me kind of backwards in my cubicle to the side. And then it seemed as if a massive explosion went off at the same time." Army Lt. Col. Victor Correa, who was on the second floor in the Army Personnel area just above the alleged impact point, said, "We thought it was some kind of explosion, that somehow someone got in there and planted bombs because we saw these holes."8 John Yates, a security manager for the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs who was in the same area as Correa just above the alleged impact point, said, "There was no noise. I mean, I did not hear a plane. Just suddenly the room just exploded, and I was blown through the air."9 Even a local mayor who was at the Pentagon that morning had a similar experience, reported by the Frederick (Maryland) News-Post. Thurmont Mayor Marty Burns "was leaning against an office doorway when an explosion rocked the Pentagon...Pentagon employees assumed it was a bomb... 'Where's the next bomb?' Burns and his Pentagon colleagues wondered. Even outside the building, Burns saw no indication that a plane had caused the [internal] damage."10 Lt. Col. Brian Birdwell, who had just come out of a restroom off Corridor 4 in the vicinity of te fourth-in B Ring, said, "I heard the sound of a very loud explosion. In my number of years in the artillery community, I hadn't heard anything that loud. I thought it was a bomb."11 And standing outside the Navy Annex about three football fields' distance from the building, Terry Morin recalled, "I saw the flash and subsequent fireball rise approximately 200 feet above the Pentagon. There was a large explosion noise and the low frequency sound echo that comes with this type of sound. Associated with that was the increase in air pressure, momentarily, like a small gust of wind. For those formerly in the military, it sounded like a 2,000-pound bomb going off..."12 Though Morin had just experienced a large plane fly overhead and to his right along the south side of the Navy Annex, he nevertheless described what the official story alleges to have been an impact, which he acknowledged could not see, with bomb-related references.
The author conducted an interview with the above-mentioned Ft. Monmouth Army financial auditor Michael Nielsen, who had been in the Army financial management area on 9/11 only minutes before the explosion, part of the building soon to be among the most destroyed in the attack. He had just returned to his temporary duty office on the ground floor near the building's cafeteria when he heard and felt a massive explosion. Immediately afterwards, he said, hundreds of Pentagon personnel ran by him down the corridor and out the exit, yelling "Bombs!," "A bomb went off!," "It was a bomb!"
Even the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Hugh Shelton, the highest ranking military officer in the U.S. military chain of command, experienced what had to have been the residue of explosives. On page 434 of his biography Without Hesitation, General Shelton noted that upon his arrival at the Pentagon he was struck by an overpowering smell of cordite, a substance used in bombs that has a very distinct and different odor from burning jet fuel. "The smell of cordite was overwhelming [emphasis added]," he said. Pentagon worker Don Perkal told MSNBC, "People shouted in the corridor outside [my office] that a bomb had gone off. Even before stepping outside, I could smell the cordite. Then I knew explosives had been set off somewhere."13 Department of Defense attorney Gilah Goldsmith reported that immediately after hearing "an incredible whomp noise," she "saw a huge black cloud of smoke" that "smelled like cordite or gunsmoke."14
Army witness April Gallop, who experienced a massive explosion as she pressed the 'on' button on her computer in Room 1E517 in Wedge Two off Corridor 5 more than 100 feet north of the official story alleged impact point (see Fig. 1, below), also smelled cordite and thought that it was a bomb. "Being in the Army with the training I had, I know what a bomb sounds and acts like, especially the aftermath," and it sounded and acted "like a bomb," Gallop told the author in an under-oath videotaped interview.15 She also restated this in a formal court filing and in a videotaped interview with former Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura for a TruTV episode on the Pentagon attack aired December 17, 2010.16 The force of the explosion and/or the impact of debris falling upon her stopped her wrist watch at or just after 9:30,17 which is almost 8 minutes before the official story claims Flight 77 came anywhere near the building. Though cordite produces a strong detonation shock wave, it is cool burning, which would explain why Gallop experienced a major explosion and yet remain unburned (see Fig. 2, second below).
In sworn videotaped testimony submitted by the author to the Toronto 9/11 Hearings, Gallop stated that there was no jet fuel and no fire on the floor as she walked out. "I had no jet fuel on me...I didn't smell any jet fuel...I didn't see any airplane seats. I didn't see any plane parts...I didn't see anything that would give me any idea that there was a plane [in the building]," she said under oath. As the explosion at or near her desk in Wedge Two was many minutes before and many dozens of feet from the alleged impact point in Wedge One [see Fig. 1, second above], they wouldn't, however, be expected. The only fires Gallop did see were "flames coming out of the computers" on desks around the perimeter of the large Army administrative area in the outer E Ring where she worked. In her original interview with an Army historian soon after the attack, Gallop said that her computer "blew." This was also experienced by other workers closer to the alleged plane impact point further south in Wedge One. As everything went black, witness Tracy Webb, whose office in 2E477 was on the second floor of the outer E ring off Corridor 4 effectively above the alleged impact point, also saw her computer suddenly "burst into flames."19
Pentagon wall clocks and April Gallop's wrist watch were stopped by primary explosions 5 to 8 minutes before the official story says Flight 77 even approached the building
Multiple, independently set electric or battery-operated wall clocks in areas of the Pentagon that sustained major damage -- including one outside the main building in the heliport fire house off the west wall -- were stopped by explosions shortly after 9:30, when a plane the official story claims was Flight 77 was still dozens of miles from the area. The Navy, whose Naval Command Center was destroyed by an explosion (see below), immediately posted a photo of one of these wall clocks, stopped at 9:31:40 (right-hand clock in Fig. 3, below) on an official DoD website, and the heliport firehouse clock, stopped at 9:32:30, is in the official 9/11 exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History (left-hand clock in Fig. 3, below).20 The photo caption on its website states that "the blast" from the Pentagon attack "knocked the heliport clock from the wall, freezing it at 9:32," and yet the official story claims that a plane didn't approach the building until almost 9:38.
Clearly, if major violent event(s) caused destruction at the Pentagon shortly after 9:30, the official story that Flight 77 struck the building at 9:37:46 – almost eight minutes later -- cannot be the whole or even the most important part of what actually happened at the nation's primary military command center on Sept. 11.
Early press and media reports of the Pentagon attack time were correct
Before the Bush-Cheney administration settled on the official story that the Pentagon was attacked at 9:37:46, many of the early mainstream press reports on the time of the attack were accurate:
about 9:30 -- Reuters, reported 3:57 p.m. on 9/11/01
about 9:30 -- USA Today, reported 6:11 a.m. on 9/12/01
about 9:30 -- New York Times, reported on 9/12/01
shortly after 9:30 -- U.S. News and World Report, reported on 9/12/01
Preplaced explosives may have also triggered the E Ring outer wall collapse
Because they contain no definitive evidence of a plane approach before the sudden appearance of a fireball, the well known 'five frames' videotapes from parking lot two security cameras outside the west wall are actually clear evidence only for an explosion either at/in or outside the wall. Indeed, there is evidence that the later collapse of a portion of the outer E Ring wall may have also been due to preplaced explosives. The contractor hired to do an "autopsy" on the concrete on the structural support columns in the alleged plane penetration path including those supporting the outside wall, American Petrography Services, found temperatures so high and "concentrated for [such] a long period of time" in the portion of the building which later collapsed, that some of the concrete "turned to mush."21 The samples "that came from [the concrete of] columns near the [alleged] crash site" also had "a reddish hue and tints of bright orange...that could be seen with the naked eye" due to the presence of iron. This section of the building experienced "the most extreme conditions" that the president of the company "had ever seen," and though its analysis suggested that "the red and orange colors came from tiny amounts of iron in the rock that were oxidized in extreme heat," the iron could instead have been the product of intense heat generated by super-thermitic reactions like those known to have occurred in the steel columns of the World Trade Center towers in New York City, reactions which produce molten iron at temperatures exceeding 4000 degrees F. As the melting point of steel is 2,700 degrees F., 4,000 degres is far higher than needed to cut through the steel reinforcements inside the Pentagon columns that collapsed approximately 20 minutes after the attack as well as turn their concrete to "mush," whereas the far lower temperature of a quickly-burning jet-fuel-initiated office fires, of between 500 and 1,500 degrees F.22 – i.e., the official story at the Pentagon on 9/11, is not.
The columns on both sides of the alleged "plane entrance" hole are bowed outward from an internal explosion, not inward from an external impact
Strong evidence that internal explosion(s) at or near the alleged impact point of a plane on the outer wall of the Pentagon, rather than an actual plane or other external impactor, are the real cause of the damage to the outer west wall are photographs showing that the outer columns to both the right and the left of the alleged "impact" point are bowed out, and not in, as can be seen in Fig. 4 below.
Likewise, the remains of the outer wall columns to the north/left of the alleged impact point of a plane were also bowed out, and not in, as seen in Fig. 5 below, consistent again with massive outward pressure from an internal explosion, and not the result of an outside impact.
Shaped charge explosives created the alleged C Ring "exit" hole
After studying photos of the alleged "exit" hole in the inner wall of the C Ring, such as in the official Pentagon release in Fig. 7 below, shaped charge explosives expert Michael Meyer concluded that the near-perfectly-round, clean-edged opening not only could not have been made by a plane or plane parts, but has the exact signature of having been created by shaped charge explosives. "It is physically impossible for the C Ring wall to have failed in a neat, clean circle like that [due to kinetic impact from a plane or plane parts; emphasis added]," he stated emphatically. A mechanical engineer who spent many years in aerospace, structural design and the design and use of shaped charges, Meyer published his analysis in "A Boeing 757 Did Not Hit the Pentagon."22a
As for claims that any part of the debris seen in these photos was from a plane, the Pentagon's own Terry Mitchell of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs Audio/Visual Division, who was given early access to the A-E Drive between the C and B Rings into which the hole opens, showed reporters a photo like the above to the media at the Pentagon's September 15 news briefing and clearly explained: "This is a hole in [the C Ring]. There was a punch out. They suspect that this was where a part of the aircraft came through this hole, although I didn't see any evidence of the aircraft down there...This pile [of debris outside the hole] here is all Pentagon [i.e. no plane] metal. None of that is [from the] aircraft whatsoever. As you can see, they've punched a hole in here. This was punched by the rescue workers to clean it out." [emphases added] Confused reporters asked, "We're trying to figure out how it [even] came [got] into the building" and how far it penetrated,23 which Mitchell evaded answering. The circled and crossed "V" spray painted on both sides of the hole after it was made is, in fact, the international triage marking symbol for "confirmed dead Victims removed."24 The fact that a data file was downloaded from the alleged plane's Flight Data Recorder (FDR) four hours before the official story says that FDR was "found" just inside this C Ring hole25 and that the data fields that could have definitively identified it as having come from the plane that flew as Flight 77 on 9/11 -- or not -- were intentionally "zeroed out"26 proves that this most important piece of "wreckage" was manipulated and then planted to make it appear that part of a plane had penetrated to the C Ring. This was almost certainly done by the federal agency in charge of all evidence at the Pentagon, the FBI – the same FBI whose Sept. 11 investigation code name is PENTTBOM[B].
The Pentagon Building Performance Report as well as some 9/11 researchers have suggested that the C Ring "exit" hole could have been created by a quasi-liquid "slurry" of unburned jet fuel, wreckage and debris moving through the alleged "plane penetration path," but this is physically impossible. In addition to former NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Research Engineering Division Chief Dwain Deets having shown that all possible straight paths between the alleged E Ring "impact" point and alleged C Ring "exit" hole had multiple steel-reinforced columns still standing, such a "slurry" would had to have reconstituted and refocused itself after being progressively shredded and dispersed from impacting multiple intervening columns, finally forming itself into a perfectly-focused cone of energy capable of exploding a near-perfectly-round hole in the inner C Ring wall. As shown by Fig. 8 from the Purdue University simulation study below, just the opposite is what would have occurred if the official story were true.
The Pentagon itself initially said there were three "exit" holes, not just one
The Pentagon originally claimed that there were three, not just one, "exit holes" on the inside of the third-in C Ring. This is shown by Fig. 9, below, a graphic based on information from Pentagon sources published in the Washington Post shortly after the attacks.
Although the left/south and middle openings were not created artificially like the one on the right which the official story later claimed to be the sole "exit" hole -- they are a roll-up door and a door -- the point is not that just one of the three is a new and artificial wall breach, but that the Pentagon itself initially referred to all three as "exit holes," clearly placing them in the same category as personnel exit/entry locations, as was explicitly stated by DoD's own spokesman Terry Mitchell at the Sept. 15 press briefing. The fact that it is impossible for any single impactor – whether a plane, a drone or a missile – to be the cause of three separate exit holes is strong evidence that, at the time the Pentagon gave this information to the Washington Post based on which it created the graphic in Fig. 9 showing three C Ring exit holes, the official story that a plane caused the northernmost hole of the three had not yet been consolidated. Indeed, at the Pentagon's first press briefing on the evening of the attacks, there was no mention of a Boeing 757.
There Was Major Fire and Destruction in the Innermost A and B Rings –
Far Beyond the Alleged C Ring "Exit" Hole
Perhaps the most compelling evidence against the official story that a plane caused the internal damage at the Pentagon is that there was major fire and destruction in the two innermost B and A Rings -- one and two rings further in towards the center courtyard than the alleged C Ring "exit" hole that was the alleged furthest point of penetration and internal destruction from of any part of a plane.
The author interviewed the then Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations on 9/11, Robert Andrews, a former Green Beret and the top civilian official then in charge of special operations under Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. In this position, Andrews oversaw the Special Operations Command, one of whose operations was the Al Qaeda-tracking-and-data-mining "Able Danger" group which identified three of the four alleged 9/11 hijacker cells more than a year before the attacks and was ordered shut down shortly after Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld took office. Andrews related the following:
Immediately after the second WTC attack of 9:03, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld left his office on the Potomac side of the Pentagon and went across the hall to his Executive Support Center (ESC),27 which was set up for teleconferencing. The first Department of Defense statement released just before 10:00 a.m. EDT on 9/11 itself stated that Rumsfeld was "directing the response" from his "command center in the Pentagon,"28 which was the ESC. From the ESC, Rumsfeld then joined the secure video teleconference of top government officials convened by National Security Council counterterrorism 'czar' Richard Clarke out of the White House Situation Room media room. Clarke, in his book Against All Enemies, confirmed that Rumsfeld was among the first federal officials to come on to the teleconference. Clarke's account and Robert Andrews' confirmation of it are thus completely at odds with the official story codified in the 9/11 Commission Report, which claims that no one could "locate" Rumsfeld until approximately 10:30 a.m. when he suddenly appeared in the National Military Command Center. Also, the fact that Rumsfeld, the military's top civilian official, was on the White House teleconference with the top official of the Federal Aviation Administration, FAA Administrator Jane Garvey, also puts the lie to the claim that NORAD fighters weren't scrambled in time to intercept the second/WTC2, third/Pentagon and fourth/Pennsylvania planes on 9/11 because the military and FAA had "communication difficulties": the top-most officials of the Pentagon and the FAA were talking to each another near continuously while Rumsfeld was in the ESC as well as being videotaped on Clarke's teleconference, a record which the Bush-Cheney administration refused to make public and which was withheld even from the 9/11 Commission. This videotape is thus "the Butterfield Tape" of Sept. 11 and must be declassified and released to a new independent investigation. (During the Watergate scandal, a secretly-made tape of President Nixon's Oval Office conversations was revealed by Alexander Butterfield and became the "smoking gun" which forced Nixon to resign rather than be impeached by the House and face trial in the Senate.)
According to Andrews, immediately after the second WTC tower was struck at 9:03, he and an aide left his office and ran down to Rumsfeld's west section Counterterrorism Center (CTC). While they were in the CTC, a sudden violent event caused the ceiling tiles to fall and smoke to pour into the room. Andrews immediately looked at his watch, which read c. 9:35 but which was set fast to ensure timely arrival at meetings, so the actual time was closer to 9:32. He and the aide then immediately left the CTC to join the Secretary Rumsfeld in his Executive Support Center across the hall from Rumsfeld's main office. En route to the ESC, Andrews said that when he and his aide entered the corridor on the innermost A ring of the west section, "we had to walk over dead bodies" to get to the central courtyard. This A Ring is two rings further in towards the center courtyard than the alleged "exit" hole in the C Ring which the official story says was the furthest any part of the plane or damage from it penetrated.
Once in the Pentagon's inner courtyard, Andrews and his aide ran to the Executive Support Center, where he joined Rumsfeld as his special operations/counterterrorism adviser during Richard Clarke's White House video teleconference. When they arrived, Rumsfeld was already on the teleconference,29 and while there, Andrews said Rumsfeld spoke with President Bush. Whether this was via Clarke's teleconference or by phone or other means was not stated. The fact that Rumsfeld personally spoke with Bush while he was in his Pentagon ESC was published on an official DoD website, of the Naval Postgraduate School. The author's sworn affidavit as to the content of the interview with Robert Andrews has been provided to the panelists and organizers of the Toronto 9/11 Hearings.
In addition to the deaths, and by inference the violent events that caused them, encounteted by Andrews and his aide on the inside of the innermost A Ring, there also was massive damage and fire on the inside of the fourth-in B Ring. This, again, is one ring further in towards the center courtyard from the official story alleged plane "exit" hole on the inside of the third-in C Ring. The day after 9/11, the Washington Post reported that "the attack destroyed at least four of the five 'rings' that spiral around the massive office building...A 38-year-old Marine major...said he and dozens of his colleagues rushed to the area in the Pentagon that appeared most heavily damaged -- the B Ring between the 4th and 5th corridors [emphases added]." The major said that the B Ring area "was decimated" and "that heat and fire, it could eat you alive in three seconds." In his interview with the Army's Center of Military History, a lieutenant who was in Room 2C450 in the middle C Ring at the time of the attack, said he saw "the windows in the B Ring [first] go out and [then] come in -- like the pressure, the blast made the windows go out [emphases added],"30 consistent with a massive internal explosion inside the B Ring. Also, members of the Pentagon Rescue Team told the Washington Post that "When we got into the building, we started to feel the heat right away, and as we walked deeper down the hallways [i.e., further towards the center], it got hotter and hotter. It was just fire everywhere. Not so much smoke, but just fire all around us. You couldn't see a plane, just [office] debris everywhere you looked."31
It is physically impossible for any impactor, whether a plane or otherwise, that allegedly penetrated only to the middle C Ring as the official story holds, to cause massive damage, fire and deaths in the two rings further in. And no foreign terrorist -- Al Qaeda or otherwise -- could have had the access to plant explosives anywhere inside the Pentagon, regardless of the ring.
Evidence that some of the inside explosives were targeted
Once it is realized that the real story at the Pentagon – as at World Trade Center Buildings 1, 2 and 7 in New York City – is inside explosives, the possibility that specific offices or functions were actually targeted by non-Al-Qaeda inside perpetrators not only arises, but becomes likely. No foreign terrorist would have chosen the hardest-to-hit place on the entire Pentagon -- just above the ground on the only wedge that had just been hardened, that was the least populated and presented the greatest obstacle course including a hill, highway signs, light poles, a tall antenna, a chain-link fence and six-foot-high spools – as a target. A real outside terrorist would have chosen the surest, simplest, fastest dive straight into the center courtyard or into the roof over the "highest value" targets – the offices of the Secretary of Defense and top-ranking military brass on the opposite side of the building. It therefore had to have been the perceived necessity by insiders to take out function(s) located on the first floor of the west wedge that was the real reason for both the preplaced explosives and the need to create the appearance of a plane impact on such a "mission impossible" target to account for the internal damage they caused.
The two Pentagon areas with by far the most physical destruction and fatalities were the Army administrative area on the first floor of the outer E Ring, and the Naval Command Center on the first floor of the second-in D Ring and third-in C Ring; and there is evidence that both areas were, indeed, targeted by inside explosives. Pentagon sources even said so to the Washington Post immediately after the attacks.
The Naval Command Center
Shortly after the attacks, the Washington Post published the below graphic entitled "The Targeted Ones" sourced to the "U.S. Navy, Navy personnel and Department of Defense" showing the Naval Command Center (NCC) as an internal target of the Pentagon attack,32 all of whose offices were beyond the point in the outer E Ring after which the Pentagon Building Performance Report said the alleged plane's fuselage did not penetrate. The Center's functional divisions are detailed in the blow-up of the office layout at the top, in which the "intel cell" – the Naval Intelligence cell -- in the right corner is designated by '8' in the legend:
The Targeted Ones
Significantly, in the report on its investigation of the damage to the building -- the Pentagon Building Performance Report -- the American Society of Civil Engineers states that the sole upward-thrust section of the second-floor floor slab in the alleged "plane penetration path" in Wedge One was likely due to "an independent explosion" and not impact and fire, as the official story claims that an impactor penetrated the ground floor essentially level and fire would have at the most, the report said, collapsed the second-floor floor slab downwards: "The explosion, suggested by the raised [second-] floor section, might represent an independent [of any lateral impact] explosion [emphasis added]." This second-floor concrete slab that was thrust upwards by a major force is, not surprisingly, above the first-floor Naval Command Center that experienced a massive and reported targeted explosion. In Fig. 12 below, compare the location of the Naval Command Center in the above graphic with the location of the "independent explosion" -- the orange rectangle that represents this upward-thrust second-floor slab -- near the center of the alleged "plane penetration wedge."
The official story codified in the 9/11 Commission Report and repeated by most of the mainstream media holds that all but one of the military officers present in the Naval Command Center on the morning of Sept. 11 died in the attack and that alleged sole survivor was Lt. Kevin Shaeffer.33 One possibility as to why the NCC was targeted is what Shaeffer told the naval quarterly magazine CHIPS: "The Navy Command [Center] would have been able to prove what hit the World Trade Center [and almost certainly also what was about to hit -- or not -- the Pentagon itself] if we had not been hit" by the explosion.34 Notably, had it not been targeted, the NCC could also have ordered Navy fighters to intercept any errant planes that it determined NORAD was not responding to in a timely manner, which was all of them on 9/11.
That something extremely important and apparently highly threatening to Bush-Cheney adminis-tration higher-ups was being pursued by the Naval Command Center's intelligence cell is underscored by yet another cover-up -- of the real number of NCC personnel killed there in the attacks. The official story holds that 42 of 43 military personnel who were in the Pentagon's Naval Command Center on Sept. 11 died,38 with Lt. Kevin Shaeffer being the only survivor. But the author was told something quite different by the military officer in command of the Navy Anti-Terrorism Division in that very Naval Command Center on 9/11, Coast Guard Reserve Rear Adm. Jeffrey Hathaway.39 After the USS Cole was attacked in Aden Harbor, Yemen, on Oct. 12, 2000, Hathaway was put in charge of Navy counterterrorism force protection, for which he had been assigned to the NCC before Sept. 11. Admiral Hathaway said that Shaeffer was not the only survivor, but that "the majority of the 18- to 19-person intelligence cell in a hardened room inside the Naval Command Center also survived" the explosion [emphasis added]. Whether the minority who were killed of those "18 to 19" were or included the seven members of super-secret Chief of Naval Operations-Intelligence Plot (CNO-IP) is unclear. Regardless, what is clear is that after the attack there was a decision by the highest levels of the Bush-Cheney-Rumsfeld administration to hide the fact that there were far more survivors of the attack on the Naval Command Center than just Kevin Shaeffer, who they were, and what they knew and what they were doing that caused them to be targeted.
The Army Financial Audit Area
The Army's administrative, personnel and financial management/audit offices were the most heavily damaged areas with the highest number of casualties in the Pentagon attack; and nearly three dozen of the 125 Pentagon victims were auditors, accountants and budget analysts, all or almost all of whom worked in the Army area. The day before 9/11, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld had publicly announced that the Pentagon was "missing" -- that it allegedly could not account for -- $2.3 Trillion dollars.35 Some reports have given the amount as $2.6 Trillion. To put this number in perspective, after more than a decade, the total cost of both the Iraq and Afghanistan wars is, according to some reports, approximately this same amount. Because of this, the question naturally arises: were the auditors in the Army area who were trying to "follow the money" -- and the computers that were helping them do it -- intentionally targeted by the inside explosives at the Pentagon on September 11th? The author was the first to suggest this possible nexus, in The Pentagon Attack Papers published in The Terror Conspiracy and The Terror Conspiracy Revisited by Jim Marrs.36 Recall also that the only fires seen by April Gallop, who told a conference audience that her office was not far from the Army auditors, were coming out of computers. Michael Nielsen, the Army financial auditor interviewed by the author, said that the auditors' computers could indeed have been targeted and that their records were, in any case, destroyed.
Similar to the heavily-damaged Army financial management/audit area, there is reason to suspect that the Naval Command Center intelligence cell was also targeted because it was looking into what could have become a financial scandal of major geopolitical proportions. A published analysis claims that the NCC intel cell was investigating $240 Billion in secret securities that had been illegally used to sabotage the Soviet Union's economy during the Cold War, that these securities were scheduled to become redeemable the day after the attacks, and that some of the financial entities involved in the covert securities had their offices and related records in the World Trade Center Towers.37 Given this context, it may prove important that Phillip Zelikow – a former member of President George H.W. Bush's National Security Council, a close colleague of and co-author with President George W. Bush's NSC Director Condolezza Rice, an expert in the creation and maintenance of "Myths of State" and the Executive Director of the 9/11 Commission which codified the "New Pearl Harbor" State Myth – headed the Harvard study that used the CIA's own documents to "exonerate" the agency of charges that the George H. W. Bush Team B politicized and fixed "intelligence" on the Soviet Union around its covert Cold War policy decisions. As one of the most secret policy decisions if this nexus were true would have been the use of hundreds of billions of dollars to sabotage the Soviet Union, Zelikow and George Bush Sr. would have shared a special interest in seeing that documents on this most sensitive of covert operations reportedly held by the Naval Command Center be destroyed. Zelikow also defended the "Myth of State" that the original WW II Pearl Harbor was a surprise attack in an amazon.com review of Robert Stinnett's ground-breaking book Day of Deceit, in which Stinnett exposed President Roosevelt's provocation of Japan, foreknowledge of the attack, and setting up Navy ships at Pearl Harbor as "sitting ducks" to ensure a "successful" attack.
In addition to geo-strategic and financial motives, there is yet another reason that the Naval Command Center's intelligence cell and adjacent also-damaged Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) offices may have been intentionally targeted: their likely participation in Able Danger, the Special Operations Command data-mining and analysis team that had identified two of the three "Al Qaeda" cells and four of the lead hijackers allegedly responsible for the 9/11 attacks including 'ringleader' Mohammed Atta over a year before Sept. 11 and which Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld shut down in late January 2001 immediately after taking command of the Pentagon.
Naval Command Center survivor Kevin Shaeffer's testimony is also strong evidence that the NCC explosion was a primary evet unrelated to any possible plane impact. He insisted that the massive orange fireball that destroyed the Center, which Lt. Cmdr. Tarantino described as "a bombed out office space [emphasis added],"40 happened "at precisely 9:43." As the official story claims that a plane impacted at 9:37:46, over five minutes before this, and that whatever allegedly penetrated through to the C Ring did so in less than one second, or by 9:37:47, even if the official story were true, Flight 77 could not have been the source of the Naval Command Center explosion and destruction at 9:43. The time difference between the first explosion, which we now know to have been at 9:30, and the NCC explosion at 9:43 also makes it likely that the "second huge explosion" heard and felt by Pentagon renovation team member Terry Cohen, which she said was "about 15 minutes later" [than the first],41 was the one which almost killed Shaeffer in the NCC.
The Pentagon attack is central to the 9/11 plot
Though the attacks on the World Trade Center towers in New York City were more spectacular, it is the attack on the Pentagon, the nation's most iconic military facility, that most fully turned the Sept. 11th attacks into the "New Pearl Harbor" called for by the Project for the New American Century (PNAC) one year earlier. It was the Pentagon attack that ensured that the Bush-Cheney administration could use the combined attacks as a pretext for being "at war"; for establishing the first-ever U.S. mainland combatant command, NORTHCOM; for rolling out its entire global domination agenda; and for creating and consolidating the domestic surveillance state. Alone, the attacks on the World Trade Center could have been credibly argued to be "a bigger World Trade Center '93" or "a bigger Oklahoma City," both of which had already been successfully addressed by the civilian courts. The Pentagon attack is thus the core of the real insider 9/11 plot without which George W. Bush could not have become the "war president" he told confidants he wanted to be before even running for the office; without which the pretext for "preemptive" wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and beyond would not have existed; without which Vice President Cheney could not have realized his long-sought goal of concentrating power in a "unitary executive" with the near-absolute power and authority of a monarch over foreign and defense policy;42 and without which Bush could not have credibly invoked his Article II commander-in-chief military powers to justify every violation of the Constitution and U.S. and international law in the wake of the attacks.
Because the "New Pearl Harbor" – the Pentagon – had to be "successfully" attacked, such a critical pretext for endless war could not be left to foreign terrorists. It had to be planned and, most importantly, controlled and executed by the very insiders who then used it to roll out their entire global domination and domestic surveillance agenda. Foreign terrorists could never have come up with a plot so perfectly resonant with the original Pearl Harbor deep within the American psyche: an expertly scripted kamikaze attack by suicide pilots using planes as weapons, only this time to attack buildings instead of ships. Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh and the other "9/11 Five" still awaiting "trial" in Guantanamo at the most planned a 9/11-like attack – conspired to do so -- but they are not, and cannot be, the actual attackers. The real terrorists are insiders who are still at large and must be brought to justice through a new, truly independent 9/11 investigation.
The findings on pre-placed explosives contained in this chapter are necessary but not sufficient to explain the key events at the Pentagon on Sept. 11th. For the Toronto Hearings, a request was made by the organizers that the author focus on just that aspect of the attack. For the author's full analysis also addressing the official story claims regarding Flight 77 and the role of other planes observed at and near the Pentagon on 9/11, see "Behind The Smoke Curtain" at http://tinyurl.com/smokecurtain.
About the Author
The author served in the U.S. federal government in a number of positions, including White House Policy Analyst and Special Assistant to the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and for more than a decade was the Senior Military Affairs Journalist at the Naval Postgraduate School, the premiere science, technology and national security affairs graduate research university of the Department of Defense (2000-2011). She is the author of October Surprise, the pioneering book exposing the deep story behind the Iran side of the Iran-Contra affair (Tudor, 1989); is one of the first 50 current and former government, military and intelligence officials to publicly call for a new independent investigation of 9/11 at www.patriotsquestion911.com; and is one of the 20 original charter members of the international organization Political Leaders for 9/11 Truth.
- "The official [FBI] investigation, known as 'OKBOMB'...", Wikipedia, Oklahoma City Bombing entry, paragraph 3, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OKBomb.
- "The Terrorist Hunter," Time magazine, May 9, 2011, p. 27; and "Bush: 'We're at War'", Newsweek, Sept. 24, 2001, http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/linkscopy/GWBwereAtWar.html.
- "9/11 Investigation: PENTTBOM," FBI website, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/9-11-investigation.
- Communication with the author by Monica Gabrielle. In her videotaped testimony to the Toronto Hearings, another Jersey Girl, Lori van Auken, mentioned that other FBI briefers told the Jersey Girls that the agency's code name for the 9/11 investigation ends in BOM[B] because the plot included planes being used as bombs.
- "Oklahoma City bombing" entry, Wikipedia, paragraph 3, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OKBomb, "The official investigation, known as 'OKBOMB'..."
- "The Terrorist Hunter," Time magazine cover story on FBI Director Robert Mueller, May 9, 2011 issue, p. 27; "Bush: 'We're at War'", Newsweek, Sept. 24, 2001 issue, http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/linkscopy/GWBwereAtWar.html.
- Daily Telegraph, London, Dec. 16, 2001.
- Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) "Frontline," Oct. 26, 2004.
- "Pentagon Attack Came Minutes After Rumsfeld Predicted 'There Will Be Another Event,'" by Robert Burns, Associated Press, Sept. 11, 2001, 5:58 p.m. EDT. Pentagon attack came minutes after Rumsfeld predicted: 'There will be another event', See also: (Before 8:46 a.m.) September 11, 2001: Defense Secretary Rumsfeld Reportedly Predicts Terror Attacks.
- 9/11 Commission staff report on Team 8 interview with Navy Capt. Charles Joseph Leidig, http://cryptome.org/nara/dod/dod-04-0429.pdf.
- Pentagon 9/11, Alfred Goldberg et al., Washington, D.C., Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2007, p. 31.
- Army Lt. Col. Victor Correa entry, compilation of witness accounts by Eric Bart, http://web.archive.org/web/20040501101751/http://eric-bart.net/iwpb/witness.html.
- "9/11 Pentagon Victims Recall Their Journey of Survival," by Christie Vanover, INCOM, Fort Riley Post, Sept. 5, 2002, http://www.army.mil/article/27202.
- Frederick (Md.) News-Post, Sept. 7, 2011.
- Lt. Col. Brian Birdwell interview excerpt in Then Came the Fire: Personal Accounts from the Pentagon -- 11 September 2001, by Stephen J. Lofgren, General Editor, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D.C., Sept. 2011, pp. 72-73, http://www.scribd.com/doc/65563423/THEN-CAME-THE-FIRE-PERSONAL-ACCOUNTS-FROM-THE-PENTAGON-11-SEPTEMBER-2001.
- Terry Morin quote, "9/11 and the Pentagon Attack: What Eyewitnesses Described," No. 640, Arabesque, April 2 2007, http://arabesque911.blogspot.com/2007/04/911-and-pentagon-attack-what.html.
- "The Works of Humankind: A Dispatch by Don Perkal," http://www.mcsweeneys.net/2001/09/19perkal.html; and http://911research.wtc7.net/pentagon/evidence/witnesses/explosive.html.
- Gilah Goldsmith quote, compilation of witness accounts by Eric Bart, http://web.archive.org/web/20040501101751/http://eric-bart.net/iwpb/witness.html.
- Two-hour videotaped under-oath testimony interview of April Gallop by the author, Irvine, Calif., March 2007, submitted in evidence to these Toronto Hearings, to Prof. Graeme MacQueen. This testimony formed a basis for a lawsuit Gallop brought against Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, then Acting Chmn. of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Richard Myers, and Vice President Dick Cheney. See also video of keynote Gallop's keynote address to Freedom Law Center conference, March 2007, Irvine, Ca, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5U5hOyZlrcY&feature=gv. Also, author's phone interview with Fort Monmouth Army auditor Michael Nielsen, who was on temporary duty assignment at the Pentagon before and on 9/11. A possible explanation for the bomb-sniffing dog teams prior to the first explosion could be advance security for President Bush's anticipated arrival at the Pentagon heliport, which prior to the unfolding attacks was scheduled for between noon and 12:30 p.m. This is unlikely, however, as it does not explain why they were in the Metro station far from the heliport and why no dog teams were reported at and around the heliport itself.
- TruTV, "Conspiracy Theory" episode on the Pentagon attack with Jesse Ventura, aired Dec. 17, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrZ14NRbT-s.
- In the Qs and As following her keynote address to the Freedom Law Center conference (see Note 15), April Gallop states, "I know my watch stopped at 9:30. The watch that I had on stopped at 9:30," at 30:31-3-:13 min. in http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5U5hOyZlrcY&feature=gv.
- "Witness D.C. 9/11," National Geographic compilation of 9/11 video footage, still photo of April Gallop at 21:13 min., http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIfwsjF8X5U.
- September 11: An Oral History, by Dean E. Murphy, New York, Doubleday, 2002, p. 212.
- The photo on the right of a Navy/Marine Corps wall clock stopped at 9:31:40 was posted on an official Navy web site http://www.news.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=2480Pentagonclock_BBC. The electric Skillcraft wall clock on the left stopped at 9:32:30 is from the Pentagon helipad firehouse outside the west wall and is in the official 9/11 exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History, http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=19. Heliport firefighters Alan Wallace and Mark Skipper raced out of the way of an incoming white plane with two horizontal stripes on its fuselage that exploded into a fireball at or near the heliport, stopping the heliport clock at 9:32:30. This plane is the source of what one witness called "millions" of pieces of small confetti-like wreckage in the vicinity of the helipad 100 feet and more north of the official story alleged impact point, and cannot be Flight 77, as the fuselage of of American Airlines planes are a silvery polished aluminum, not white.
- "'Concrete Autopsy' Helps Strengthen Pentagon," by Kerry Hall, National Geographic Today, July 9, 2002, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/07/0709_020708_TVpentagon.html.
- "It is impossible that jet fuel [fires] raised the temperature of this floor more than 495 degrees F.," "Jet Fuel: How Hot Did It Heat the World Trade Center?" http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/wtc/how-hot.htm. Consensus Project sources put the maximum temperature of office fires higher, at 1,500 degrees F., which, however, is still far less than the temperature required to turn concrete into "mush." The Project also puts the temperature required to melt steel at 2,700 degrees F.
- "A Boeing 757 Did Not Hit the Pentagon," by Michael Meyer, Scientific Panel Investigating Nine-Eleven (SPINE), http://www.scholarsfor911truth.org/ArticlesMeyer3March2006.html.
- Department of Defense News Briefing, Sept. 15, 2001, segment with Terry Mitchell of ASDPA audio visual, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Sep2001/t09152001_t915evey.html; reported with commentary in Pentagate by Thierry Meyssan, Carnot Publishing, p. 18.
- Jacqueline Augustino, FEMA photos, http://www.photolibrary.fema.gov/photolibrary/photo_details.do?id=4958.
- "Pentagon 9/11 Flight 'Black Box' Data File Created Before Actual 'Black Box' was Recovered," http://911blogger.com/news/2008-05-18/pentagon-911-flight-black-box-data-file-created-actual-black-box-was-recovered, by Aidan Monaghan.
- "Flight Data Expert [Dennis Cimino] Confirmation: No Evidence Linking FDR Data to American 77," Pilots for 9/11 Truth, http://pilotsfor911truth.org/Dennis-Cimino-AA77-FDR.html. See also the presentation by Cimino at the Vancouver 9/11 Hearings, 2012, video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mmGi5YeQ_Bw.
- Author's interview of Sept. 4, 2004 with former Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict Robert Andrews, and article based on this interview published on the website of the Naval Postgraduate School (no longer online), "Special Operations Policy Expert and Veteran Robert Andrews Gives Distinguished Guest Lectures at NPS." See also author's California Jurat with Affiant Statement signed by Barbara Honegger and Notary Public Kelly Harlow of Monterey, Calif., May 25, 2011, which has been provided to the Toronto Hearing Panelists and organizers.
- Transcript of the first Pentagon press briefing of Sept. 11, 2001, c. 10:00 a.m., subsequently removed from the Department of Defense website. In 9/11: The Big Lie, p. 13 footnote 1, Thierry Meyssan notes that as of 2002, it could be accessed via the Yale University website at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/sept_11/dod_brief03.htm.
- Firefight: Inside the Battle to Save the Pentagon on 9/11, by Patrick Creed and Rick Newman, Presidio Press, pp. 276–277, 2008, also reported that Rumsfeld went to a conference room in the Executive Support Center where he joined a secure video teleconference with Vice President Dick Cheney and other officials.
- Lt. Col. Victor Correa interview excerpt in Then Came the Fire: Personal Accounts from the Pentagon -- 11 September 2001, by Stephen J. Lofgren, General Editor, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D.C., Sept. 2011, p. 64, http://www.scribd.com/doc/65563423/THEN-CAME-THE-FIRE-PERSONAL-ACCOUNTS-FROM-THE-PENTAGON-11-SEPTEMBER-2001.
- WashingtonPost.com, Sept. 11, 2001..
- "The Targeted Ones", The Washington Post, from U.S. Navy, Navy personnel and Depot. Defense sources, http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_j1WCY4T_2yI/SSJjfSvi0LI/AAAAAAAAEzI/OS7hJJYawTY/s1600-h/PENTAG~1.GIF. There is precedent for the government targeting its own intelligence personnel in a terrorist attack. Following the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, Pan American Airlines sued the U.S. government claiming federal authorities knew intelligence officers were on board, had prior knowledge of the impending attack, and had not attempted to prevent it, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_Am_Flight_103.
- "Survivor of Pentagon Attack Has Positive Attitude," by Sarah Zablotsky, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 11, 2006, http://www.post-gazette.com/neigh_south/20030611s19kevin0611p6.asp.
- CHIPS magazine, Spring/June 2003 issue.
- "Vince Gonzales Investigates the Pentagon: Unaccounted For Funds," CBS News, Sept. 10, 2001; Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, "DOD Acquisition and Logistics Excellence Week Kickoff: Bureaucracy to Battlefield," Department of Defense, Sept. 10, 2001, http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/speech.aspx?speechid=430.
- "The Pentagon Attack Papers," by Barbara Honegger, appendix to The Terror Conspiracy (first ed.) and The Terror Conspiracy Revisited (second ed.), by Jim Marrs; more recent online edition at http://www.truthjihad.com/PentagonAttackPapers.htm and www.sd911truth.org.
- E.P. Heidner, "Collateral Damage: U.S. Covert Operations and the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001," http://www.scribd.com/doc/9442970/Collateral-Damage-US-Covert-Operations-and-the-Terrorist-Attacks-on-September-11-200128062008 or http://www.wanttoknow.info/911/Collateral-Damage-911-black_eagle_fund_trust.pdf.
- "The Last Watch," by Richard Leiby, Washington Post, Jan. 20, 2002.
- Rear Admiral Jeffrey Hathaway bio information, History Commons, http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=complete_911_timeline_3229#complete_911_timeline_3229.
- Pentagon 9/11, Alfred Goldberg, et al., Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007, p. 119, ISBN 978-0-16-078328-9.
- Interview with Pentagon renovation construction worker Terry Cohen, NBC Channel 4 News, Sept. 11, 2001,
- http://letsrollforums.com/miltary-testimony-huge-explosion-t19067.html, scroll to third video screen.
- Cheney made this reference that the presidency should be imperial and have the powers of a monarchy in the dissenting minority report he commissioned as ranking House Republican on the Congressional Joint House-Senate Iran-Contra Committee that was published along with the majority report. It referred to his Nixonian opinion that the Reagan-Bush Sr. Administration's sending of arms to the Nicaraguan Contras in direct violation of federal law, the Boland Amendment, should not be considered illegal because the President had authorized it and because the president has the final word in everything relating to foreign policy. When asked by a reporter in 2005 to explain his expansive views about presidential power, Cheney replied, "...go look at the minority views that were filed with the Iran-contra committee."